Bradley York Bartholomew
The Mayan Wheel that appeared over two consecutive nights (2-3 August, 2004) at Silbury Hill, Wiltshire has taken the ‘crop circle’ phenomenon to new heights. We are no longer dealing with simple circles, nor are we dealing with archetypal patterns or shapes. The Mayan Wheel is a clear and unambiguous reference to the entire Mayan belief system and world view. It now remains for us to refer to the Mayan legacy, for it is evident that The Circlemaker expects us to incorporate Mayan philosophy and cosmology into our crop circle investigations. The broad question we have to answer is why a Mayan crop circle should appear in Wiltshire, England in the summer of 2004. What relevance (if any) could the extinct Mayan culture have for a supernatural phenomenon occurring on the other side of the world, and in another millennium?
The Mayan Wheel is actually in the form of a clock, and there is an obvious reference to the well-known Mayan calendar which ends on the winter solstice for the Northern Hemisphere, namely 21 December in the year 2012. Already there are numerous publications (books, articles, websites) drawing attention to this auspicious date (with its end of time or end of era implications), but there is no clear consensus as to what the Mayans themselves predicted would occur after this date. Although the Mayans built some extraordinary temples which are still extant, and there is a reasonable amount of their art and written language preserved, there is no real agreement amongst archaeologists and scholars as to what their architecture and their art really means. Their written language is in the form of logograms and remains largely indecipherable, to the point where, although it is believed the Mayans worshipped a pantheon of gods, for the most part the names and roles played by these gods are unknown, and they are simply referred to in the archaeological literature as gods A, B, C, D etc. In recent times there has been no shortage of theories about the significance of these gods, but these theories are invariably put forward by scholars who have a certain cultural or historical bias which permeates their theory. They approach the problem of trying to identify the Mayan gods with their own conceptions about the sort of things ‘primitive’ people normally worship. All the clichés are there – sun gods, phallic gods, gods representing the four directions, the underworld, death, the harvest etc etc. None of this has any real relevance to cereologists – with the possible exception that one of the Mayan gods has been identified as the god of maize. Certainly there is scant explanation as to why the Mayans should regularly perform bizarre and bloody acts of self-mutilation as part of their religious observances to gods bearing the names of letters in the roman alphabet.
It is proposed in this article to adopt a different way of interpreting Mayan art, where we leave to one side all the things we know, or think we know, about primitive cultures, and instead attempt a straight forward psychological interpretation of the legacy of this extraordinary race of people. In this way it will surprise you to learn that the Mayans actually had remarkably similar belief systems to the Druids of Western Europe (Ireland, Britain and Gaul), as well as to the Australian Aborigines. This suggests that the message The Circlemaker is conveying with this Mayan Wheel, is that by 21 December, 2012, there will be a new consciousness amongst the peoples of the world based precisely of these older belief systems.
The psychological theory that I propose to adopt for the purpose of this exercise is derived from the French school of psychoanalytical thought. According to this school, the foetus in the womb is in a state of sleep known as REM (dreaming) sleep, and this state of sleep is responsible for the genetic programming of the brain prior to birth. (1) Principally what is being programmed into the brain is a host of neurotransmitters responsible for our passions and emotions (2), and in addition the sensory systems of the foetus are activated during the dreaming, which means that the foetus is born with a psychological heritage based on its dream experiences of the conditions in the womb. The foetus is actually dreaming about its aquatic milieu, swallowing the amniotic fluid, its connection to the mother via the umbilical cord and placenta, its foetal envelops, the sound of its mother’s voice, heart beat and other bodily functions. (3) At birth all this is lost to the foetus, traumatically and irreversibly. (3) The umbilical cord is cut which leaves a permanent physical and emotional scar. (3)There is from then on a sense of lack, that something profound has been lost, which becomes the source of desire throughout the rest of its life. (3)
The cutting of the umbilical cord represents the first lost object, and is the prototype of what has been identified in psychoanalytical theory as the castration complex. (3) It is only in a late stage of development that the phallus is identified with the male penis. Initially the phallus is the umbilical cord that is cut, and then it becomes the female nipple for both sexes. (3) That is to say that the essential nature of the phallus is the communication cord with the mother, and this is what has been irredeemably cut at birth. A very common and easily recognizable dream symbol for the phallus in all its forms is the snake or serpent.
Armed with this very general introduction to French psychoanalytical theory, on referring anew to the Mayan art and architecture, we find that womb symbolism is everywhere to be found. The mere fact that Mayan temples are constructed over a natural or excavated cave complex is itself symbolic of the womb. Mayan art is teeming with images of snakes and serpents, lilies and similar freshwater plants with willowy stems and undulating fronds, subterranean waters and marine creatures, all of which is pure womb symbolism based on their foetal dreams. There is also to be found many instances of self-mutilation, including the severing of the penis and piercing the tongue with the barbs of the sting ray’s tail. Bloody and painful sacrifice of their own person and others is a key feature of their religious observances, and harks back to the severance of the first object at birth, namely the umbilical cord and placenta. This is the prototype for all later forms of self-mutilation, which is seen as necessary to repay a debt or regain some illdefined object that is lost forever, and which must have been caused by some fault of failing of their own. In other words sadomasochism was part and parcel of Mayan religious practices. Indeed this is the case for all religions, but the Mayans took sadomasochism a good deal further than most. All forms of sacrifice to a deity are motivated by this urge to repay a debt, or to regain something that is lost, or to appease some vague sense of fault, all stemming from the severance of the umbilical cord at birth. This sense of lack must be in some way due to a transgression on one’s own part. Hence the need to punish oneself and/or others.
Mayan art is reminiscent of Herman Hesse’s novel Der Steppenwolf. The same themes are to be found there. The masked ball, the magic theater, the dancing, the mirrors, the sadomasochism, the hermaphroditism, anthropomorphism, zoomorphism, and the nostalgic yearning for and interest in death. Just as the Mayans saw themselves often as half-man half-jaguar, Harry Haller, the main character in Hesse’s novel, saw himself as half-man half-wolf. If Herman Hesse had been living in Guatemala 2000 years ago, and he wanted to tell the story of the Steppenwolf in art form, you would find it would come out resembling very closely the art of the Maya. In fact Hesse actually did a watercolour painting of his masked ball which bears an uncanny resemblance to some of the Mayan rock carvings. See Figure 1 (The Masked Ball by Herman Hesse) and Figure 2 (Section of a façade consisting entirely of masks at Kabah). Mayan art is not really about the worship of a pantheon of gods, but rather the Mayans saw themselves in God’s own image, that is to say they were celebrating the divine within themselves. In their art they depict themselves, sometimes half-animal half-human, sometimes half-male half-female, often wearing grotesque masks, dancing and feasting in the spiritual ecstasy of life. In their art they are simply telling us their story from a psychological point of view as did Herman Hesse.
In addition to this general psychological interpretation of Mayan art, there is also to be found a much more specific cosmic interpretation, and in order to appreciate this we must first ascertain the true significance of Plato’s Cave. In the Republic, Plato seems to be suggesting in his famous cave analogy that there is something problematic and illusory about the nature of light, principally sunlight. He suggest that we mortals go through life wearing blinkers which prevents us from seeing the true reality behind things. His language is obscure but the message is clear – don’t take reality at face value. This cave analogy is a reference to a substratum (4) below the physical world, in much the same terms as the Hindus speak of the Inner Self. Plato was actually telling us that the divine intelligence that creates our reality is within, and it is suggested that the cave metaphor is actually signifying the nucleus of all living cells where the genetic code is located. Essentially, the divine intelligence is in the genome. It is now known that the DNA not only emits photons (light quanta)(5), but also it has a mysterious resonance which propagates wave functions that can influence conventional electromagnetic waves (6) such as brain waves. With this sort of ‘information’ coming from our DNA we can no longer speak with any certainty about anything in the external world being physical, or indeed that the sun is the source of light.
The religious rituals and perambulations of the Mayas are actually telling us the same thing that Plato was trying to tell us with his cave analogy. The temples at Tikal, Palenque and Copán, amongst others, indicate that the Mayans performed a ceremonial where there is a grand procession down into the subterranean chambers of the temple and then back up into the light of the sun – that in fact the Mayans constructed their temples precisely to stage these rituals. There is no evidence that the Mayans specifically worshipped the sun in cult fashion, and their ritual seems to suggest that the light of the sun actually comes from the substratum. It is acknowledging that the divine source of light is within, much the same thing that Plato was saying, and indeed the Hindus as well. The Mayans didn’t write about it in a language that we can understand but they surely performed it symbolically. Also every new year the Mayans performed a prolonged ritual which started five days before the close of the old year where idols symbolizing the old and the new and the four cardinal directions were moved from one place to another in a complex circular fashion around their temples, actually celebrating the passing of the old year and the start of the new. The ritual was performed in much the same way as the mechanistic motion of the cogs and wheels in a clock. That means that they were actually celebrating the passage of time as part of their religious observances, counting down to the end of their calendar. The concept of time was of great significance for them as was their calendar. The close of one year and the start of the new year meant that they were that much closer to the end, 11.11 hours (GMT) (12) on 21-12-2012. (Note the numerology)
We now come to the most extraordinary thing of all about the Mayan religion. As stated previously, the image of the serpent is everywhere to be found in Mayan art. But so too is the image of The Serpent Bearer. See Figure 3 on pillar D at the Temple at Palenque, and there are many other similar images as well. It just so happens that at the time of the winter solstice on 21 December, 2012, the Serpent Bearer plays a great role in astronomy as well as astrology. At that time the foot of the figure of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer) is conjunct the galactic centre, and the sun is also conjunct with the foot of Ophiuchus and thus the centre of the galaxy. (8) The constellation of Ophiuchus, which lies between Scorpio and Sagittarius, is seen as the thirteenth sign of the Zodiac. What this means is that 2000 years ago the Mayans not only knew about the precession of the equinoxes (a slow westward shift of the equinoctial points along the plane of the ecliptic), but they were able to predict precisely how far this will have progressed on 21 December, 2012, when their calendar ends. On that day the Earth, the Sun and the foot of The Serpent Bearer will be in exact alignment. A Greek named Hipparchus is said to have discovered the precession of the equinoxes around 129 BC. He is also sometimes credited with inventing trigonometry. The angle he arrived at as being the annual rate of precession is close to being correct, but is actually inaccurate, as were his observations on the stellar positions, and in addition it is said that he had the benefit of a great deal of Babylonian data. Hipparchus was a long way from accurately predicting the extent of the precession of the equinoxes two thousand years into the future, which is precisely what the Mayans have done, and there is no evidence that they knew about trigonometry nor was the Babylonia data available to them. There can be only one explanation for this. The Mayans had divine inspiration. They were aided by The Circlemaker.
It is claimed that the Mayans had also predicted that at the time of the winter solstice in 2012, the Pole Star (Polaris) would likewise be in alignment with the foot of the Serpent Bearer through the centre of the galaxy, (9) which is in fact the case. “The Mayans referred to this unmarked polar or dark region as the ‘Heart of the Sky’ around which everything was observed to revolve. This central point or dark region symbolized death and the underworld in Mayan mythology and they believed all life revolves around death.” (9) Essentially then on 21 December, 2012, there is a straight line through the centre of the galaxy from the foot of The Serpent Bearer, through the Sun and the Earth, to the Pole Star. This is said to be the end of a cycle of precession, whereupon a new cycle of precession will commence which will take 25,920 years to complete, at which point the alignment of the equinoxes with the sun will be reversed. (9)
In their book, Vernetzte Intelligenz, Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf (6) present a theory that the DNA of all sentient beings is linked in an intelligence network which allows for hypercommunication within the collective unconscious mind. At our conscious level we appear to be separate and autonomous beings, but this comes about as a result of the hypercommunication of information within our DNA. It is now known that the DNA can act as a superconductor at body temperature, and the operation of our genes has been likened to a solitonic-holographic computer network which means that our individual consciousness is essentially the same as a browser on the internet. As part of their theory, Fosar and Bludorf argue that the logograms in Mayan art bear a very strong resemblance to computer chips. See Figure 4 ((a)Glyph Kan – Seed (b) Glyph Cib – Warrior (c) & (d) The same glyphs embedded in the human head). Bear in mind that the Mayan vocabulary comprises approximately 800 of these symbols or logograms and when presented in close alignment they do suggest a medium capable of channeling cosmic energy directly into our brains from the substratum. See Figure 5 taken from Monument 6 at Quiriguá. The Mayan logograms are telling us the same thing that Plato was telling us with his cave analogy, and Fosar & Bludorf are telling us with the hypercommunication in the DNA – namely that it is the light emerging from the DNA in the substratum which is creating an illusory world that we take to be physical. This also ties in with the ritual perambulations of the Mayans down into the subterranean chambers of their temples, where they symbolically descended into the substratum and then ascended into the light. Much is made of the fact that the Mayans worshipped gods in the Underworld, and this is taken to be the god of Death. The point is that the Mayan underworld is actually the substratum where the Inner Self is located – the divine intelligence in the DNA. The Mayans were not worshipping the god of Death at all. They were worshipping the divine creator in the DNA – the giver of Life.
So we must now try to determine the relevance of all this to The Circlemaker, who saw fit to create the Mayan Wheel at Silbury Hill on the 2-3 August, 2004. For a start we find that the Druids had similar beliefs to those of the Mayans. The Druids, like the Mayans, saw themselves as Gods. We also find that the Druids commonly frequented caves and grottoes as part of their religious practices. In addition we find that the Druids likened the cosmos to a serpent’s egg (10) which bears the same sort of womb symbolism that can be found in Mayan art. The serpent actually symbolizes the umbilical cord, and from early Irish manuscripts it emerges that the Druids considered the umbilical to be the sacred centre which was located in Ireland. (10) For the Mayans various marine creatures were also symbolic for the womb, and in the same way it emerges that the Druids regarded the sea urchin as symbolic of their foetal pre-history. (In 1899 a fossilized sea urchin enclosed in a schist case was found at Druid sacred site at Amand-aux-Sèvre). (10) So for both the Druids and the Mayans, their beliefs concerning the origin of the cosmos are inextricably intertwined with their own psychological heritage of life in the womb prior to birth. The umbilical cord (and the severing of same) is of particular significance to them. At the great Aztec temple at Teotihuacan, Mexico, (the Aztecs were much influenced by the Mayans) the Indians, to this very day, bury the umbilical cords of their new born infants.
Some sort of supernatural force was at work which enabled the Mayans to predict the precise conjunction of the stars at a point 2000 years into the future when their calendar was to end, and in the same way the Druids claimed to have a magical control over the forces of nature. In their book Zaubergesang (11) [Magic Singing], Fosar & Bludorf relate the fable of the Druid Wind conjured up by the Druids in an attempt to prevent the sons of Mil from landing in Ireland. This supernatural ability to will the forces of nature to perform magical acts is a demonstration of the power of group consciousness. According to Fosar & Bludorf this power of the Druids to control the wind (the appearance of crop circles could also be attributed to this magical power) stems from the resonance of the DNA interacting with the brain waves of consciousness which operate in a similar frequency range to the natural resonance of the earth, the so-called Schumann Frequency Waves. This claim to be able to control the weather through the power of the mind is not an uncommon occurrence, and indeed in the crop circle context it is commonly asserted that these luminous apparitions in the sky in some way interact with the psyche of people observing them. Such phenomena are clearly within the belief systems of the Druids, as well as the Maya, as being simply a matter of calling upon the divine force in the substratum, that is to say the divine intelligence that is in our genetic code. Once it is accepted that the divine intelligence is working from within, it is perfectly understandable that the Druids, and the Maya, should actually regard themselves as gods. Refer to the Song by Amorgen in the Book of the Conquests of Ireland, which quite clearly expresses a belief in pantheism which can only be rationalized on the basis that the divine intelligence is in the DNA of all sentient beings. It is the Druids who are now making the crop circles in England, and elsewhere. They are now working in concert with The Circlemaker to ring out the old era, and to usher us into the new era which will commence after the winter solstice in the year 2012.
The direct connection between the human psyche and the cosmos can be seen in the way Richard Leviton explains the geomantic significance of Avebury as being the ‘planetary umbilicus.’ (13) The Druids originally designed Avebury to represent a serpent passing through a circle – the serpent, as we have already seen, is the psychological symbol for the umbilicus. From Avebury you can gain access to the ‘Great Star Nation and connect with the Sky Gods.’ To the Mayans must go this honour of being the ‘Great Star Nation’ given their magical observations and predictions concerning the conjunction of the stars at the end of their calendar. Again, Merlin the Druid is reputed to have ‘artificially compounded’ the sarsen stones at Avebury by the ‘great skill of magic’. (13) Creating crop circles would therefore be a breeze for Merlin the Druid. Leviton tells us, “The Avebury star itself is a hologram of the Blazing Star at the topmost centre of our galaxy, the Pole Star, or Polaris, in Ursa Minor, the Lesser Bear. So in a sense, you have the opportunity to align yourself with the umbilical point of yourself, the Earth, and the galaxy.” This observation will become even more significant come the winter solstice of 2012 when you will also be aligned with the Serpent Bearer at the other end of the galaxy. This umbilical cord runs through the centre of the entire galaxy.
The great pyramid at Chichén Itzá is the supreme cosmic statement by the Mayan Star Nation. Leviton tells us that viewed from the northern staircase of this pyramid, at the time of the equinoxes, you see a remarkable light effect “where the sunlight creates the appearance of seven isosceles triangles moving down the western balustrade, its sinuous motion suggestive of a thirty-seven-foot-long serpent of light which then joins the huge stone carving of a serpent’s head at the base of the staircase to form one figure.” The Mexicans call this light effect the Feathered Serpent. Not so amazing when we consider that the Mayan Star Nation had the benefit of a divine architect, who is now creating comparable miracles, as The Circlemaker. The name Chichén Itzá is said to mean ‘sorcerer of water.’ The sacred well of Itzá is a clear symbol of the womb, and coupled with the Feathered Serpent light effect, one can see how the Mayans were always at pains to ground their cosmology in archetypes of the human psyche. The sorcerer of water manipulating sunlight in this manner is reminiscent of what Plato had to say about the illusory nature of light in his cave analogy. Leviton goes on about Chichén Itzá, “The Mayan myths speak of an even deeper or profounder point of origin for the Itzá. The Na-Ho-Kan was a place of darkness in the northern sky that existed before the appearance of the Sun. The kuxan sum, or ‘living cord,’ represented as two entwined serpents, wove its way through this darkness as a prime umbilicus that held all of Creation together. Then the first stone throne was established at No-Ho-Kan in the Hearth of the cosmos.” This place of darkness in the northern sky may here be referring to the Pole Star not being aligned with the Earth, the Sun and the Serpent Bearer until the end of the calendar on the 21 December, 2012. Again, according to Leviton, the great pyramid at Chichén Itzá was to the Mayans an expression of Snake Mountain, that is to say a cosmic mountain or axis mundi. “The snake in the mountain also represents the conduit from the supernatural world into the human world – it is a kind of Vision Serpent”. (14) The snake in the mountain is the conduit that binds all human life together within the cosmos – namely the umbilical.
Glastonbury also demonstrates the fundamental doctrinal symmetry between the Mayans and the Druids. The landscape at Glastonbury is said (15) to contain the signs of the Zodiac, so it will come into focus at the winter solstice in 2012, along with the Serpent Bearer, as the thirteenth sign of the Zodiac. Referring to the Glastonbury landscape, Leviton asks ‘what was this zodiac for?’ Glastonbury, like Avebury, is now one of the key locations selected by The Circlemaker to stage the drama of the end of the Mayan calendar. The Zodiac is here represented precisely to underscore the appearance of the Serpent Bearer. Glastonbury has been referred to as ‘the citadel of Celtic esotericisms’ and as such it is steeped in the esoteric magic of the Druids. That is to say – The Circlemaker resides here. Wellesley Tudor Pole concedes “that a pure strain of Druidic lore persists in Glastonbury, as if preserved for future use in a spiritually different time.” (13) That time is now!! The Druids have returned as The Circlemaker. The Glastonbury landscape is also said (16) to represent “a huge supine goddess, Chalice Hill being the pregnant belly, Wearyall Hill her left thigh, Beckery being the Goddess’s vagina out of which a divine child is being born at Bride’s Mound. Glastonbury is a place of gestation.” (13) Here we see the clear connection between Glastonbury and all the womb imagery in Mayan art. This divine child to be born at Glastonbury is precisely what ushers in the new era after the winter solstice in 2012. “All things Begin & End in Albion’s Ancient Druid Rocky Shore” says the mighty bard William Blake. (13)
Iona Island, Scotland, is said to be wired with silver threads to the master Avebury dome, the Earth’s umbilicus to the galaxy. Leviton tells us that it is encircled by silver flames and that it is distinctly feminine. In other words its geomantic energy is drawing us back into the womb, similar to Mayan art and architecture. This island exudes the magic of Merlin the Druid. “One of Merlin’s prime tasks, in whatever incarnational or cultural guise he assumes, is to maintain what is known to the angelic world as the Mer-Line. This is a line of connection direct to the Divine Mother, the Great Sea, Mer, the ocean of greater consciousness… The Mer-Line is the umbilicus to the Mother – the Mother’s Line… It is both Merlin’s line to the Mother, and the energy line through her body to her Face. You walk Merlin’s line on Iona through the Mother’s landscape body to the Mother.” (13)
At Newgrange in Ireland we also find the umbilical connection between the Mayans and the Druids. The Druids constructed a large egg-shaped aboveground cave using an estimated two hundred thousand cantaloupe sized stones. This structure embodies several archaeo-astronomical alignments, and of particular interest is that at the time of the winter solstice, 21 December, the entire underground passage and central chamber is bathed in brilliant sunlight for approximately 15 minutes. Not only does this specifically mirror Mayan architecture, but we see here the Druids expressing the same sort of reservations about the illusory nature of sunlight as did Plato in his cave analogy. The illusory nature of light arises from the fact that light is produced in the substratum, it emanates from the DNA, and only appears to come from above. Leviton tells us that Newgrange is a traditional combha bhreac, or ‘Gate to the Otherworld.’
For the Australian Aborigines the Great Rainbow Serpent is the embodiment of light. This mythical creature is located in the great red rock dome at Uluru. The Dreamtime, as described by the Aborigines, abounds with dramatic tales about snakes, just as we see in Mayan art. Similarities between the Dreamtime and life in the womb prior to birth are everywhere to be found in these creation myths at Uluru. The Dreamtime is a splendid way to speak of foetal dreams. It is the time when all the anthropological archetypes are programmed into our brain from the DNA, giving us a sense of evolution and identification as a species. Leviton tells us that Uluru is the world’s navel so geomantically it is directly associated with Avebury as the planet’s umbilical to the stars. In fact the Aborigines are the Druids of Oz. The Druids from Down Under. Just as the Druids worshipped the sea urchin as symbolizing life in the womb, one of the Uluru myths has it that a little lizard man named Linga threw his boomerang and it became buried in Uluru. The scarring and the potholes on the sides of the great dome are caused by his frantic efforts to find it. Linga’s boomerang is still buried in Uluru and Linga became the little sand lizard. Leviton says, “Associating Uluru with a buried boomerang has intriguing geomantic nuances.” American travel writer Bill Bryson says if he had to excavate the planet for signs of a buried alien spaceship, he would start digging at Uluru. (13) But he wouldn’t find an alien spaceship there. What he would find is the Great Rainbow Serpent and the lost boomerang of Linga, the little sand lizard. Bryson however was certainly on the right track. “Somewhere in the deep sediment of your being some long-dormant fragment of primordial memory, some little severed tail of DNA has twitched or stirred. Uluru has an importance to you at the species level.” (13) What Bryson was angling towards has now been made clearer by the Mayan Wheel that appeared at Silbury Hill. On or before 21 December, 2012, Linga, the little sand lizard, is going to find his boomerang.
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2.Vincent, J-D. (1986) Biologie des passions [Biology of passions]. Paris: Odile Jacob.
3.Dolto, F. (1984) L’image inconsciente du corps [The unconscious image of the body]. Paris: Le Seuil; This, B. (1989) Le placenta: médiateur, protecteur, premier objet perdu? [The placenta: mediator, protector, first lost object?]. In A. Bouchart, D. Rapoport, & B. This (Eds.), Les cahiers du nouveau-né 8: Délivrances ou le placenta dévoilé [The journal of the neonate 8: Deliveries or the placenta unveiled] (pp. 109 – 140). Paris: Stock; Jacques Lacan, Séminaires 5 Janvier 1966, 12 Mars 1968, 26 Mars 1969, 18 Juin 1969.
4.Rosen, S. (2003). Lecture on the The metaphysical concept of ‘production’, in Heidegger’s interpretation of Plato, given at the Institut Catholique de Paris in November, 2003.
5.Rattemeyer M., F.A. Popp, and W. Nagel. “Evidence of photon emission from DNA in living systems”. Naturwissen 68 (1981): 572.
6.Fosar, G. and Bludorf, F. (2003) Vernetzte Intelligenz [Networked Intelligence]. Aachen: Omega.
7.Baudez, C-F. (2002) Une histoire de la religion des Mayas [A history of the religion of the Maya] Paris: Albin Michel.
8.Jude Currivan, Why here, why now? CCCS Lecture, London, November 2004.
9.http://www.alienconnection.com/2012.htm The material presented on this website appears to be authoritative, although they do not disclose their sources.
10.Guyonvarc’h, C-J & Le Roux, F. (1996) Les Druides [The Druids] Rennes: Editions Ouest-France.
11.Fosar, G & Bludorf, F. (2004) Zaubergesang [Magic Singing] Marktoberdorf: Argo-Verlag.
12.Data from U.S. Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications Department.
13.Leviton, R. (2002) The Galaxy on Earth. Charlottesville: Hampton Roads.
14.Linda Schele and Peter Matthews The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs. Quoted by Richard Leviton.
15.Theory of Katherine Maltwood, quoted by Richard Leviton.
16.Kathy Jones, The Goddess in Glastonbury, quoted by Richard Leviton.